Syntactic Corn Syrup June 16th, 2015
Patrick Stein

I’ve been bouncing around between Java and C++ and C and loads of JNI cruft in between. At some point today, I accidentally used a semicolon to separate parameters in my C function declaration:

void JNI_myJNIMethod( int paramA; int paramB; int paramC )
{
  ...
}

It looked wrong to me. But, I had one of those brain-lock moments where I couldn’t tell if it was wrong. I was pretty sure that it was wrong by the time my brain locked on pre-ANSI K&R:

void
JNI_myJNIMethod(paramA, paramB, paramC)
  int paramA;
  int paramB;
  int paramC;
{
  ...
}

Regardless, it got me thinking about the programming maxims: Deleted code has no bugs and Deleted code is debugged code.

I never have this kind of brain-lock in Lisp. Some of that is because my Emacs configuration has been molded to my Lisp habits better than to my C/C++/Java habits. Most of it, though, is that Lisp understands the difference between syntactic sugar and syntactic cruft.

Lisp decided long ago that writing code should be easy even if it makes writing the compiler tougher. C and C++ and Java all decided that LALR(1) was more important than me. As if that weren’t bad enough, C++ and Java have thrown the lexers and parsers under the bus now, too. No one gets a free ride.

XML Parser Generator March 16th, 2010
Patrick Stein

A few years back (for a very generous few), we needed to parse a wide variety of XML strings. It was quite tedious to go from the XML to the native-language representations of the data (even from a DOM version). Furthermore, we needed to parse this XML both in Java and in C++.

I wrote (in Java) an XML parser generator that took an XML description of how you’d like the native-language data structures to look and where in the XML it could find the values for those data structures. The Java code-base for this was ugly, ugly, ugly. I tried several times to clean it up into something publishable. I tried to clean it up several times so that it could actually generate the parser it used to read the XML description file. Alas, the meta-ness, combined with the clunky Java code, kept me from completing the circle.

Fast forward to last week. Suddenly, I have a reason to parse a wide variety of XML strings in Objective C. I certainly didn’t want to pull out the Java parser generator and try to beat it into generating Objective C, too. That’s fortunate, too, because I cannot find any of the copies (in various states of repair) that once lurked in ~/src.

What’s a man to do? Write it in Lisp, of course.

Example

Here’s an example to show how it works. Let’s take some simple XML that lists food items on a menu:

<menu>
        <food name="Belgian Waffles" price="$5.95" calories="650">
                <description>two of our famous Belgian Waffles with plenty of real maple syrup</description>
        </food>
        <!-- ... more food entries, omitted here for brevity ... -->
</menu>

We craft an XML description of how to go from the XML into a native representation:

<parser_generator root="menu" from="/menu">
  <struct name="food item">
    <field type="string" name="name" from="@name" />
    <field type="string" name="price" from="@price" />
    <field type="string" name="description" from="/description/." />
    <field type="integer" name="calories" from="@calories" />
  </struct>

  <struct name="menu">
    <field name="menu items">
      <array>
        <array_element type="food item" from="/food" />
      </array>
    </field>
  </struct>
</parser_generator>

Now, you run the parser generator on the above input file:

% sh parser-generator.sh --language=lisp \
                           --types-package menu \
                           --reader-package menu-reader \
                           --file menu.xml

This generates two files for you: types.lisp and reader.lisp. This is what types.lisp looks like:

(defpackage :menu
  (:use :common-lisp)
  (:export #:food-item
             #:name
             #:price
             #:description
             #:calories
           #:menu
             #:menu-items))

(in-package :menu)

(defclass food-item ()
  ((name :initarg :name :type string)
   (price :initarg :price :type string)
   (description :initarg :description :type string)
   (calories :initarg :calories :type integer)))

(defclass menu ()
  ((menu-items :initarg :menu-items :type list :initform nil)))

I will not bore you with all of reader.lisp as it’s 134 lines of code you never had to write. The only part you need to worry about is the parse function which takes a stream for or pathname to the XML and returns an instance of the menu class. Here is a small snippet though:

;;; =================================================================
;;; food-item struct
;;; =================================================================
(defmethod data progn ((handler sax-handler) (item food-item) path value)
  (with-slots (name price description calories) item
    (case path
      (:|@name| (setf name value))
      (:|@price| (setf price value))
      (:|/description/.| (setf description value))
      (:|@calories| (setf calories (parse-integer value))))))

Where it’s at

I currently have the parser generator generating its own parser (five times fast). I still have a little bit more that I’d like to add to include assertions for things like the minimum number of elements in an array or the minimum value of an integer. I also have a few kinks to work out so that you can return some type other than an instance of a class for cases like this where the menu class just wraps one item.

My next step though is to get it generating Objective C parsers.

Somewhere in there, I’ll post this to a public git repository.

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